Failure Analysis


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- X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) -

X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) is a fast, simple, and accurate way of material composition detection. Its most notable qualities include no, or minimal, sample preparation, non-destructive analysis, and compatibility with solid, liquid, and powdered samples. XRF spectrometers range from light hand-held devices to table-top machines.

CALCE houses a Fisherscope XDAL X-Ray Spectrometer that is capable of performing compositional analysis and conducting thickness measurements. A movable X-Y stage and variable Z-axis source allows great flexibility with sample size: from a single surface mount chip to a hand-held portable electronic device. No sample preparation is required prior to analysis, and there is no need to place sample in vacuum chamber as with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) systems. A video camera in sync with the emitter allows continuous monitoring of the position on the sample, making it possible to locate an area of interest prior to analysis.

Material analysis mode of the XRF provides analytical range from Aluminum (Z=13) to Uranium (Z=92) where detection from 0.1% to 100% is achieved accurately. The system offers four collimators with programmable, motorized controls. The minimum collimator size of 100Ám allows XRF analysis of small regions of interest.

Thickness measurement mode provides the ability to determine depth of known layers of material. Each layer to be measured can be either a single element or an alloy. The depth of penetration varies depending on the materials used, but can be over 50Ám.

Fisherscope X-Ray Spectrometer

Figure 1: Fisherscope ?X-Ray Spectrometer

Sample XRF spectrum for SnAgCu (SAC) solder with Electroless Nickel ImmersionGold (ENIG) finish

Figure 2: Sample XRF spectrum for SnAgCu (SAC) solder with Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold (ENIG) finish



Introduction

Electrical Testing

Non-Destructive Evaluation

Visual Inspection

Optical Microscopy

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)

X-ray Microscopy

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF)

Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM)

Scanning Magnetic Microscopy (SMM)

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FTIR)

Contact Resistance Measurements

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

Destructive Evaluation