Photonics Packaging and Reliability




Photonics (also called optoelectronics, though this latter term has a more narrow focus) is a field that encompasses light-related technology: light sources, waveguides, and light detectors. In recent years, more products and designs have been based on this technology, most prominently in telecommunications and sensing. As this technology has matured, so has the need to evaluate the performance of photonic devices and increase their reliability and lifetime.

This webpage will highlight some of the basics of photonics and CALCE's role and research in this field.


Dr. Diganta Das - (301) 405-7770 ,

Tutorials and Introductory Documents

1. Packaging, Manufacturing and Reliability Issues in Photonics (PDF file)

2. Failure Mechanisms and Physics of Failure Assessment of Optoelectronic and Electronic Packages (PDF file)

3. Reliability of  Light Sources (LEDs and Lasers) (PDF file)

4. Optical Fiber Components

    a. Optical Fibers (PDF file)

    b. Optical Fiber Connectors (PDF file)

5. Optical Fiber Sensors

    a. Bragg Gratings (PDF file)

Related CALCE Links

  1. Reliability Assessment of a PCB Assembly in Bellcore Specified Temperature/Humidity Environments, 1995.
  2. Procedure for Evaluation of Thermal Management Requirements in a Laser Diode Structure, 1997
  3. Optoelectronics at CALCE
  4. Project Number: C01-34 - Effect of Proof Testing on Optical Fiber Fusion Splices

CALCE Projects


Project Number: C01-34 - Effect of Proof Testing on Optical Fiber Fusion Splices

CALCE Publications

Conference Papers

Patricia F. Mead, Yubing Yang, Melody Burch, Patrick McCluskey, and F. G. Johnson, "Environmental Acceleration Factors of Nonhermetic Packaged AlGaAs LEDs." Photonics West, January 2001. (PDF file)

K. Broadwater, P. F. Mead, “Experimental and Numerical Studies in the Evaluation of Epoxy-Cured Fiber Optic Connector,” IEEE Electronics and Components Technology Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, pp. 981-988, May 2000. (PDF file)

K. Broadwater, P. F. Mead, "Characterization of Epoxy Cured Fiber Optic Connectors Via Fiber Sensors," ASME Proceedings of the POLY-1999 Workshop on Polymeric Materials for Microelectronics and Photonics Applications: Mechanics, Physics, Reliability, Processing, Paris, France, December 1999. (PDF file)

Mead, P.F., Burch, M., McCluskey, P., Johnson, F.G., "Failure Analysis of Plastic Packaged GaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs Light Emitting Diodes," Internaional Conference for Testing and Failure Analysis Annual Conference, Santa Clara, CA, November 1999.

K. Broadwater, P.F. Mead, “Fiber Optic Reliability using Fiber Optic Sensors,” Proceedings - SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering 1999, VOL 3860 SPIE Fiber optic sensor technology and applications, Boston, MA, pp. 543-552, September 1999. (PDF file)

K. Broadwater, P. F. Mead, "Stress Characterization of Fiber Connector Assemblies During Epoxy Cure", ASME InterPACK '99 Conference, Maui, Hawaii, pp. 1289-1294, June 1999. (PDF file)

K. Broadwater, P. F. Mead, "Stress Characterization of Fiber Connector Assemblies," 1999 SEM Annual Conference, Cincinnati, Ohio, pp. 727-730, June 1999. (PDF file)

Sagrario, D., Mead,P.F., "Axial-angular displacement fiber optic sensor,", Society of Experimental Mechanics Spring Conference, Bellevue, WA, November 1998. (PDF file)

Chen, Q.Y., Mead,P.F.,Balaji, P., Haislett, D., "Physics of Failure Study of Optoelectronic Laser Transmitter Module", ASME Annual Conference, Atlanta, GA., November 1996.

Mead, P.F., Chen, Q., McCluskey, P. "Physics of Failure Based CAD Software for Hybrid Optoelectronic Packages," Structural Analysis in Microelectronics and Fiber Optics 1996. ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition p. vi+225, p. 205-11.


Journal Articles

P. F. Mead, K. Broadwater, “In-Fiber Strain Characterization of Fiber Optic Connector Assemblies Via Bragg Grating Sensors,” Applied Optics, vol. 39.,no. 28, Oct. 1, 2000. (PDF file)

Sagrario, D., Mead, P.F., "Fiber Optic Sensor for Simultaneous Displacement and Rotation Measurements," Applied Optics, vol.37, no.28 p. 6748-54. (PDF file)

Kamath, R., Mead, P.F., "Procedure for Evaluation of Thermal Management Requirements in a Diode Laser Structure", Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 37, No. 12, p. 1817, 1997. (PDF file)

Dissertations,  Theses, and Proposals

Chen, Qing Yan Jenny (M.S. Mechanical Engineering), Failure Mechanisms and Reliability Assessment of Optoelectronic and Electronic Packages, 1995.

Broadwater, Keita (Ph.D.) Optical Fiber Sensors for Health Monitoring of Fiber Optic Connectors, Ph.D. Proposal, 1999.



The range of frequencies over which a particular instrument is designed to function within specified limits.


The invisible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that lies between about 0.75 and 1000 µm.


Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers usually have low bandwidth and high power. Lasers can operate in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions of the optical spectrum.


Light Emitting Diode. LEDs work on the principle of spontaneous emission of light as opposed to stimulated emission. LEDs usually have high bandwidth but relatively low power. LEDs operate in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions of the optical spectrum.


That branch of physical science concerned with vision and certain phenomena of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range extending from the vacuum
ultraviolet at about 40 nm to the far-infrared at 1 mm. Now being replaced by the more inclusive term photonics.

Optical fiber

A thin filament of drawn or extruded glass or plastic having a central core and a cladding of lower index material to promote internal reflection. It may be used singly to transmit pulsed optical signals (communications fiber) or in bundles to transmit light or images.

Optical interconnection

The use of photonic devices rather than electronic devices to make connections within and between integrated circuits.


A two-electrode, radiation-sensitive junction formed in a semiconductor material in which the reverse current varies with illumination. Photodiodes are used for the detection of optical power and for the conversion of optical power to electrical power.


The technology involving light and photons at all wavelengths between the far-infrared and the ultra-violet. Also called "Optoelectronics".


A permanent joint whose purpose is to couple optical power among two or more ports. Also, a device whose purpose is to couple optical power between a waveguide and a source or detector.


The invisible region of the spectrum just beyond the violet end of the visible region. Wavelengths range from 1 to 400 nm.

Visible Spectrum

Light which can be seen by the unaided human eye, defined in our case as between 400 nm and 750 nm.


A system or material designed to confine and direct electromagnetic waves in a direction determined by its physical boundaries.


Electromagnetic energy is transmitted in the form of a sinusoidal wave. The wavelength is the physical distance covered by one cycle of this wave; it is inversely proportional to frequency.

Page Created by Keita Broadwater (

Created on 4/16/01

Last updated, 4/30/01