Lei Nei and Michael Pecht
Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering（CALCE),
University of Maryland
College Park, Maryland,USA.
Institute of Microelectronics,
Pennsylvania State University
Middletown, Pennsylvania, USA
Abstract:This paper seeks to investigate the electronics industry’s reaction to environmental regulations specifically in terms of lead-free solders and halogen-free flame-retardants. In this paper, the various international environmental regulations pertaining to electronics manufacturing and relating the industry reactions to those regulations are discussed. It also provides the market trends related to lead-free and halogen-free products. The electronics industry is pursuing lead-free solders and halogen-free flame-retardants, in part due to regulations. However, the paper includes examples of how the industry is successful in implementing environmentally friendly changes. Regulations from Japan, the European Union, the United States, and China compare with each other. While the regulations themselves vary in scope, industry actions to find alternatives do have common purposes. Electronics manufacturers recognize that environmentally motivated changes are beneficial in terms of waste minimization.
Keywords: environmental regulations; lead-free; halogen-free
Complete article is available to CALCE Consortium Members.