e-Prime - Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy. DOI: 10.1016/j.prime.2021.100016

The Detrimental Effects of Water on Electronic Devices

İlknur Baylakoğlu1, Aleksandra Fortier 2, San Kyeong2, Rajan Ambat3, Helene Conseil-gudla3, Michael H. Azarian2, and Michael G. Pecht2

1 Tübi̇tak Bi̇lgem-Iltaren, Advanced Technologies Research Institute, Ümitköy, Çankaya, 06800, Ankara, Turkey
2 Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
2 Centre for Electronic Corrosion, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800, Lyngby, Denmark


Water in its various forms can affect the performance and reliability of today's electronics in unique ways. This paper discusses the forms of water and the degradation effect of water on electronics, identifies the types of failure mechanisms in electronics induced by liquid and vapor phase water, presents case studies of water-related failures, and provides recommendations for preventing water-imposed degradation in electronics. Test methods and standards based on different forms of water and specific applications of electronics are also presented.

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