Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 150, p. 111437, 2021, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2021.111437

Mitigation Strategies for Li-Ion Battery Thermal Runaway: A Review

B. Xu1,4, J. Lee2, D. Kwon3, L. Kong4 and M. Pecht4

1School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710049, China
2School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, UNIST, Ulsan, 44919, Republic of Korea
3Department of Systems Management Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea
4 Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, University of Maryland, USA


Li-ion batteries are commercially successful power sources for diverse applications. However, the characteristics of Li-ion batteries make them susceptible to thermal runaway, resulting in fires and explosions. To mitigate safety hazards prior to the occurrence of thermal runaway, various strategies have been applied for battery cells, as well as battery packages. This article reviews safety strategies for Li-ion batteries, including positive temperature coefficient thermistors, positive temperature coefficient electrodes, current interrupt devices, safety vents, protection circuitry, shutdown separators, electrolyte additives, safe electrolytes, passive protection designs in battery packages, and battery management systems. The trigger conditions, protection mechanisms, drawbacks, and applications of representative strategies are discussed, and potential future risk mitigation approaches are explored.

This article is available online here and to CALCE Consortium Members for personal review.

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