Hayder Ali1, Hassan A. Khan1 and Michael G. Pecht2
1 Department of Electrical Engineering, SBA School of Science and Engineering, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore 54792, Pakistan
2 Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Due to the rapid expansion of electric vehicles and portable electronics, the demand for lithium-ion batteries is increasing, resulting in supply risks in obtaining lithium, cobalt, and other materials, as well as issues associated with spent battery disposal. The current battery recycling processes vary by specific battery chemistries and impact both economics and greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, there is a potential for spent lithium-ion batteries reuse for low-end energy storage applications. This paper discusses various methods of assessing the reuse versus recycling of lithium-ion batteries. Commercial recycling practices and capabilities and those recommended by different research centers around the world are reviewed. Further, the potential of various novel next-generation recycling processes to optimize recycling's economic and environmental benefits is evaluated for the broader utilization of lithium-ion battery recycling.