IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 2659-2666, November 2020, DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2020.2972468

Hybrid Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems: An Overview for Smart Grid and Electrified Vehicle Applications

Lei Zhang1, Xiaosong Hu2, Zhenpo Wang1, Jiageng Ruan3, Chengbin Ma4, Ziyou Song5, David G. Dorrell6 and Michael G. Pecht7
1 Collaborative Innovation Center for Electric Vehicles in Beijing, National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China
2 State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmissions, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China
3 Faculty of Materials and Manufacturing, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, China
4 The University of Michigan-Shanghai Jiaotong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China
5 Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA
6 School of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2050, South Africa
7 Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA


Electrochemical energy storage systems are fundamental to renewable energy integration and electrified vehicle penetration. Hybrid electrochemical energy storage systems (HEESSs) are an attractive option because they often exhibit superior performance over the independent use of each constituent energy storage. This article provides an HEESS overview focusing on battery-supercapacitor hybrids, covering different aspects in smart grid and electrified vehicle applications. The primary goal of this paper is to summarize recent research progress and stimulate innovative thoughts for HEESS development. To this end, system configuration, DC/DC converter design and energy management strategy development are covered in great details. The state-of-the-art methods to approach these issues are surveyed; the relationship and technological details in between are also expounded. A case study is presented to demonstrate a framework of integrated sizing formulation and energy management strategy synthesis. The results show that an HEESS with appropriate sizing and enabling energy management can markedly reduce the battery degradation rate by about 40% only at an extra expense of 1/8 of the system cost compared with battery-only energy storage.

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