Haifeng Dai1,2, Bo Jiang1,2, Xiaosong Hu3, Xianke Lin4, Xuezhe Wei1,2 and Michael Pecht5
1 School of Automotive Studies, Tongji University, Shanghai, 201804, China
2 National Fuel Cell Vehicle & Powertrain System Research & Engineering Center, Shanghai, 201804, China
3 Department of Automotive Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China
4 Department of Automotive, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Ontario Tech University, Oshawa, ON, L1G 0C5, Canada
5 Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA
Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices for electric vehicles and renewable energy systems. However, due to complex electrochemical processes, potential safety issues, and inherent poor durability of lithium-ion batteries, it is essential to monitor and manage batteries safely and efficiently. This study reviews the development of battery management systems during the past periods and introduces a multilayer design architecture for advanced battery management, which consists of three progressive layers. The foundation layer focuses on the system physical basis and theoretical principle, the algorithm layer aims at providing a comprehensive understanding of battery, and the application layer ensures a safe and efficient battery system through sufficient management. A comprehensive overview of each layer is presented from both academic and engineering perspectives. Future trends in research and development of next-generation battery management are discussed. Based on data and intelligence, the next-generation battery management will achieve better safety, performance, and interconnectivity.