IEEE Access, Vol. 7, pp. 71131-71141, May 22, 2019, DOI:10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2918401

Li-ion Battery Reliability - A Case Study of the Apple iPhone

Yongquan Sun 1,2, Lingxi Kong 2, Hassan Abbas Khan 3, and Michael Pecht 2
1 Institute of Sensor and Reliability Engineering (ISRE), Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080, China
2 CALCE, Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740, USA
3 Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore 54792, Pakistan


Li-ion battery reliability has attracted significant research attention, but few studies have incorporated in-service performance and reliability data of batteries installed within a product. This paper investigates battery drain, unexpected shutdowns, and slow performance associated with Li-ion batteries, with a focus on Apple iPhones as a case study. The actions taken by Apple in response to these performance issues are discussed, especially from the perspective of Li-ion battery degradation. It is shown that not all battery reliability issues can be attributed to normal battery degradation; battery manufacturing defects and high C-rate applications are also shown to be contributors to battery reliability and performance issues, including those causing a low state of charge, a low state of health, and unexpected shutdowns.

This article is available online here.

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