Yongzhi Zhanga,b, Rui Xionga, Hongwen Hea, and Michael Pechtb
a e National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, Department of Vehicle Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
b CALCE, Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740, USA
Remaining useful life (RUL) prediction of lithium-ion batteries can assess the battery reliability to determine the advent of failure and mitigate battery risk. The existing RUL prediction techniques for lithium-ion batteries are inefficient for learning the long-term dependencies among the capacity degradations. This paper investigates deep-learning-enabled battery RUL prediction. The long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network (RNN) is employed to learn the long-term dependencies among the degraded capacities of lithium-ion batteries. The LSTM RNN is adaptively optimized using the resilient mean square back-propagation method, and a dropout technique is used to address the overfitting problem. The developed LSTM RNN is able to capture the underlying long-term dependencies among the degraded capacities and construct an explicitly capacity-oriented RUL predictor, whose long-term learning performance is contrasted to the support vector machine model, the particle filter model, and the simple RNN model. Monte Carlo simulation is combined to generate a probabilistic RUL prediction. Experimental data from multiple lithium-ion cells at two different temperatures is deployed for model construction, verification, and comparison. The developed method is able to predict the battery's RUL independent of offline training data, and when some offline data is available, the RUL can be predicted earlier than in the traditional methods.
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