Haibo Huo1,2, Yinjiao Xing2, Michael Pecht 2, Benno Zuger3, and Deeta Khare3, and Andrea Vezzini3
1 School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
2 CALCE, Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740, USA
3 Bern Universities of Applied Sciences, BFH-CSEM Energy Storage Research Centre, Aarbergstrasse 5, 2560 Nidau, Switzerland
The demand for battery-powered products, ranging from consumer goods to electric
vehicles, keeps increasing. As a result, batteries are manufactured and shipped globally, and the safe
and reliable transport of batteries from production sites to suppliers and consumers, as well as for
disposal, must be guaranteed at all times. This is especially true of lithium batteries, which have
been identified as dangerous goods when they are transported. This paper reviews the international
and key national (U.S., Europe, China, South Korea, and Japan) air, road, rail, and sea transportation
requirements for lithium batteries. This review is needed because transportation regulations are not
consistent across countries and national regulations are not consistent with international regulations.
Comparisons are thus provided to enable proper and cost-effective transportation; to aid in the
testing, packaging, marking, labelling, and documentation required for safe and reliable lithium
cell/battery transport; and to help in developing national and internal policies.
This article is available online here and to CALCE Consortium Members for personal review.