Energies, Vol. 10, No. 5, 591; doi:10.3390/en10050591

In Situ Stress Measurement Techniques on Li-ion Battery Electrodes: A Review

Ximing Cheng1 and Michael Pecht 2
1 Collaborative Innovation Center for Electric Vehicles in Beijing, National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
2 CALCE, Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740, USA


Li-ion batteries experience mechanical stress evolution due in part to Li intercalation into and de-intercalation out of the electrodes, ultimately resulting in performance degradation. In situ measurements of electrode stress can be used to analyze stress generation factors, verify mechanical deformation models, and validate degradation mechanisms. They can also be embedded in Li-ion battery management systems when stress sensors are either implanted in electrodes or attached on battery surfaces. This paper reviews in situ measurement methods of electrode stress based on optical principles, including digital image correlation, curvature measurement, and fiber optical sensors. Their experimental setups, principles, and applications are described and contrasted. This literature review summarizes the current status of these stress measurement methods for battery electrodes and discusses recent developments and trends.

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