Ximing Cheng1 and Michael Pecht 2
1 Collaborative Innovation Center for Electric Vehicles in Beijing, National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles, School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
2 CALCE, Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740, USA
Li-ion batteries experience mechanical stress evolution due in part to Li intercalation into
and de-intercalation out of the electrodes, ultimately resulting in performance degradation. In situ
measurements of electrode stress can be used to analyze stress generation factors, verify mechanical
deformation models, and validate degradation mechanisms. They can also be embedded in Li-ion
battery management systems when stress sensors are either implanted in electrodes or attached on
battery surfaces. This paper reviews in situ measurement methods of electrode stress based on optical
principles, including digital image correlation, curvature measurement, and fiber optical sensors.
Their experimental setups, principles, and applications are described and contrasted. This literature
review summarizes the current status of these stress measurement methods for battery electrodes
and discusses recent developments and trends.
This article is available online here and to CALCE Consortium Members for personal review.