Nicholas Williard1, Christopher Hendricks2, Bhanu Sood2, Jae Sik Chung3 and Michael Pecht2
1 Schlumberger, Houston, TX 77004, USA
2 CALCE, Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740, USA
3 PCTEST Engineering Laboratory, Inc., Columbia, MD 21046, USA; email@example.com
Lithium-ion batteries are shipped worldwide with many limitations implemented to
ensure safety and to prevent loss of cargo. Many of the transportation guidelines focus on new
batteries; however, the shipment requirements for used or degraded batteries are less clear. Current
international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed.
The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during
battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered.
Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of
new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional
tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain