Nicholas Williarda, Christopher Hendricksb, Bhanu Soodb, Jae Sik Chungc, and Michael Pechtb
aSchlumberger, Houston, TX 77004, USA
bCALCE, Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740, USA
cPCTEST Engineering Laboratory, Inc., Columbia, MD 21046, USA
Lithium-ion batteries are shipped worldwide with many limitations implemented to ensure safety and to prevent loss of cargo. Many of the transportation guidelines focus on new batteries; however, the shipment requirements for used or degraded batteries are less clear. Current international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed. The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered. Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain incipient faults.
Complete article is available from the publisher and to the CALCE consortium members.