Proceedings of SMTA International, Sep. 28 - Oct. 2, 2014, Rosemont, IL

Mapping Mechanical Properties of Lead-Free Solder Joints

Carlos Morillo, Jennifer L. Hay and Julie Silk

Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740, USA

Keysight Technologies, Oak Ridge, TN, USA


Mechanical properties of inter-metallic compounds and tin-rich area were investigated using nano-indentation. Measurement of hardness, Young’s modulus and strain rate sensitivity were acquired at room temperature for a SAC305 solder alloy with addition of Au (5% of weight percent). Additionally, a fast nano-indentation measurement technique was employed to produce surface maps of hardness. Every indentation cycle takes less than three seconds, which includes surface approach, contact detection, application of the force, withdrawal, and movement to the next indentation. Traditional nano-indentation analyses are applied to the force-displacement measurements from each indentation. Scanning-probe technology with advanced information storage and presentation allows mapping of the mechanical properties on small features. Consequently, this nano-indentation technique produces three-dimensional images of mechanical properties which are stored and manipulated just like scanned images.

In the present work, a fast technique was used to map the hardness of a SAC 305 solder joint with Au plating. After prolonged isothermal ageing, the solder joint is comprised of three constituents: a tin-rich matrix, an inter-facial inter-metallic (Cu, Ni, Au)6Sn5 and a bulk inter-metallic AuSn4. The softest material is the tin-rich matrix, which has a hardness of 0.51 ± 0.07 GPa. The hardness of the bulk AuSn4 inter-metallic is 2.12 ± 0.18 GPa. The inter-facial inter-metallic has extraordinary hardness — greater than 8 GPa. Strain rate sensitivity revealed that the IMC phase has a lower tendency to creep than the tin-rich area. Under uniform plastic strain, the mismatch in hardness between the inter-facial inter-metallic and surrounding material may increase the local stress intensity factor which drives inter-facial fracture.

Key words: nano-indentation, mechanical properties, lead-free

Complete article available from the publisher and to the CALCE Consortium Members.

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