Preeti Chauhan, Member, IEEE, Sony Mathew, Member, IEEE, Michael Osterman, Member, IEEE, and
Michael Pecht, Fellow, IEEE
Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740, USA
A physics-of-failure-based canary approach for early
identification of solder interconnect failures has been developed.
The canary is composed of a resistance path formed by a near-zero
ohm ceramic chip resistor soldered to pads designed to produce
failure earlier than standard pad resistors, which are the target
structures. The time to failure of the canary can be adjusted by
adjusting the printed wiring board pad dimensions and, hence,
the solder interconnect area. The developed canary approach is
demonstrated through temperature cycling of the resistors. The
pad width of a standard resistor is reduced by 80%, thereby reducing
the interconnect life. The results from the temperature cycling
experiment prove that the developed canary approach provides
advanced warning of failures of the standard pad resistors. The
FEA results suggest that there is a 78% increase in the strain range
in the canary resistor, as compared with the standard resistor.
The Engelmaiermodel, a physics-of-failure-based model for solder
interconnect life estimation under thermal cycling, is modified to
take the solder interconnect area into account. The model provides
time to failure estimates for the canary and target structures.
A comparison of the results from the Engelmaier model and
temperature cycling experiment shows that the model provides
a good estimate of time to failure of standard resistors and a
conservative estimate of time to failure of the canary resistors.
Index TermsóCanary, physics-of-failure (PoF), prognostic distance, solder interconnects, thermal cycling.
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