Energies 2011, 4, 1840-1857; doi:10.3390/en4111840

Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

Yinjiao Xing1, Eden W. M. Ma1, Kwok L. Tsui 1,2 and Michael Pecht1,3
1Center for Prognostics and System Health Management (PHMC), City University of Hong Kong,
Hong Kong, China; E-Mails: yxing3@student.cityu.edu.hk (Y.X.);
Eden.WM.Ma@cityu.edu.hk (E.W.M.M.); kltsui@cityu.edu.hk (K.L.T.)
2 Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong,
Hong Kong, China
3 Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering (CALCE), University of Maryland, College Park,
MD 20742, USA


The battery management system (BMS) is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a battery's performance poses a challenge to the implementation of these functions. This paper addresses concerns for current BMSs. State evaluation of a battery, including state of charge, state of health, and state of life, is a critical task for a BMS. Through reviewing the latest methodologies for the state evaluation of batteries, the future challenges for BMSs are presented and possible solutions are proposed as well..

Keywords: battery management system; lithium-ion battery; state of charge; state of health; state of life

Complete article is available from publisher and to the CALCE consortium members.

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