The escalating impact of Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages (DMSMS) on systems has resulted in the development of a growing number of methods, databases, and tools that address the obsolescence status of components, forecast future obsolescence risk, and provide DMSMS mitigation and management support. However, the majority of the existing offerings focus on reactive and, to a lesser degree, proactive management of DMSMS issues associated with electronic parts. Effective long-term management of DMSMS in systems requires addressing the problem on three different management levels: reactive, proactive, and strategic. Figure 1 defines these levels and shows their interactions.To maximize the cost avoidance associated with managing systems, all three of the management areas should be considered concurrently
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