IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp 191-198, May 2003

A Simple Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain (FDFD) Algorithm for Analysis of Switching Noise in Printed Circuit Boards and Packages

M. Ramahi and V. Subramanian
CALCE Electronic Products and Systems Center
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742

B. Archambeault
Research Triangle Park, NC


Simultaneous switching noise (SSN) compromises the integrity of the power distribution structure on multilayer printed circuit boards (PCB). Several methods have been used to investigate SSN. These methods ranged from simple lumped circuit models to full-wave (dynamic) three-dimensional Maxwell equations simulators. In this work, we present an efficient and simple finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) based algorithm that can simulate, with high accuracy, the capacity of a PCB board to introduce SSN. The FDFD code developed here also allows for simulation of real-world decoupling capacitors that are typically used to mitigate SSN effects at sub 1 GHz frequencies. Furthermore, the algorithm is capable of including lumped circuit elements having user-specified complex impedance. Numerical results are presented for several test boards and packages, with and without decoupling capacitors. Validation of the FDFD code is demonstrated through comparison with other algorithms and laboratory measurements.

Index Terms: Delta-I noise, EMC, EMI, finite-difference frequency- domain, packaging, power distribution networks, power planes, simultaneous switching noise.

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