IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies , Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 338-343, June 1999.

Nano-to-Millimeter Scale Integrated Systems

H. Last, M. Deeds, D. Garvick, B. Kavetsky
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division
101 Strauss Ave., Bldg 302, Indian Head, MD 20640, USA

P. Sandborn, E. B. Magrab, S. K. Gupta
CALCE-Electronic Products & Systems Center
University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA


A great deal of emphasis has been placed on integrating diverse functionality into a single monolithic device for the sake of smallness and performance - but what happens when a system with diverse functionality, materials and technology can not be fabricated monolithically? The integration of systems created from dissimilar elements, especially those that vary in size by orders of magnitude is poorly understood.

This article discusses a class of systems called "Integrated nano to millimeter" (In2m) systems, defined by their multiple size, diverse technology domains, and mixtures of electrical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, fluidic, and biological functions. The modeling, analysis and synthesis of these systems suggests analysis techniques, materials, manufacture and assembly transcending the capabilities developed within individual disciplines. The function and fabrication of a Safety & Arming device is presented to illustrate the In2m concept.

Complete article is available to CALCE Consortium Members

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