To be effective, Design-for-Environment (DFE) of electronic systems
must be closely tied to design-to-cost and design-for-manufacturability
activities. This paper presents a cost model that focuses on activities
defined in terms of material additions and subtractions. The model computes
the volume of materials, used and wasted by plating, coating, etching,
stripping, desmearing, plasma etching, lamination, drilling, filling, singulation,
scrapping, and waste disposition activities. The model allows
material usage and waste to be computed and observed on a per process step basis. Example modeling results from evaluating the cost and waste associated with PWB fabrication are included.
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