IEEE Transaction on Components Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
Part A, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 542-547, December 1997

Perspectives to Understand Risks in the Electronic Industry

E. Magrab, D. Anand, K. Eisinger, J. McLeish M. Torres, P. Lall and T. Dishongh, Abhijit Dasgupta


When developing a competitive electronic product or system, risks can arise from the inability to meet functional requirements and business expectations throughout the life cycle, from first inception to final disposal. THe risks can be broadly grouped into four categories.

  1. Technological risks typically arise from the potential inability to meet design function over any of part to the life cycle, or from difficulties in manufacturing to consistently high quality standards, leading to problems of reliability, quality, and safety.
  2. Business risks result from shifts in the supply and demand balances in the marketplace, and in the cost of the system
  3. Societal risks consider factors such as environmental hazards and life style changes, and is generally difficult to quantify in terms of economic or engineering units.
  4. National risks focus on matters of national economic and military well-being.
Depending on the product or system being developed, several of the above risk categories may simultaneously affect design/development and manufacturing decisions, and vice-versa.

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