IEEE Transaction on Components Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
Part A, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 542-547, December 1997
Perspectives to Understand Risks in the Electronic Industry
E. Magrab, D. Anand, K. Eisinger, J. McLeish M. Torres, P. Lall and T.
Dishongh, Abhijit Dasgupta
When developing a competitive electronic product or system, risks can
arise from the inability to meet functional requirements and business
expectations throughout the life cycle, from first inception to final
disposal. THe risks can be broadly grouped into four categories.
Depending on the product or system being developed, several of the above
risk categories may simultaneously affect design/development and
manufacturing decisions, and vice-versa.
- Technological risks typically arise from the potential
inability to meet design function over any of part to the life cycle, or
from difficulties in manufacturing to consistently high quality standards,
leading to problems of reliability, quality, and safety.
- Business risks result from shifts in the supply and demand
balances in the marketplace, and in the cost of the system
- Societal risks consider factors such as environmental hazards
and life style changes, and is generally difficult to quantify in terms of
economic or engineering units.
- National risks focus on matters of national economic and
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