As electronic devices and equipment are finding their ways into diverse
applications, their physical integrity becomes a matter of utmost concern.
The thermal design criteria customarily assumed in many of previous heat
transfer programs have to be replaced by those on the thermo-mechanical
load in compact systems. Attempts to find thermal and stress fields in
critical parts of components, however, are beset by geometrical complexities
and multiple length and time scales involved in transport processes in
electronic equipment. Modeling of complex systems is the subject left for
further rationalization. Also needed is the foresight about possible hardware
morphologies taken by electronic equipment in the future. In view of possible
saturation of 2D packaging technology, heat transfer studies for 3D packaging
are worth being undertaken. Common to different scenarios of hardware development
is the need to critically review the methodology and focuses of fundamental
heat transfer research.