Microelectronics and Reliability, Vol. 35 (3), pp. 377-402, March 1995.

Characterization of Functional Relationship Between Temperature and Microelectronic Reliability

P. Lall, M. Pecht, and E. Hakim


The functional relationship between temperature and micro-electronic reliability is presently characterized by an Arrhenius relationship.  The Arrhenius relationship encourages lowering temperature to achieve reliability goals.  In this paper, the role of temperature in achieving cost-effective reliable electronic equipment has been investigated.  The effect of temperature on reliability has been evaluated based on failure mechanisms and electrical parameter variations.  The device investigated in this paper is assumed to consist of a bipolar or MOSFET (silicon) semiconductor device with device packaging consisting of first level interconnects that may be wirebonds, flip-chip, or tape automated bonds, die attachment, substrate attachment, case, lid, lid seal and lead seal.  Failure mechanisms actuated under various temperature stresses, including steady state temperature, temperature cycling, temperature gradients, and time-dependent temperature change, have been identified for each of the package elements.  A methodology for derivation of the functional relationship between temperature and micro-electronic reliability has been discussed.

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