Failure Mechanism Models for Electromigration
D. Young and A. Christou
This tutorial illustrates situations where electro-migration (a wearout
failure mechanism) in electronic devices can degrade performance.
Electro-migration and its relation to microstructure is discussed.
Temperature considerations are treated. A practical model for electro-migration
and two application examples are given. Qualitative design procedures
for avoiding solid-state electro-migration failure are briefly discussed.
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