IEEE Transactions on Reliability, Vol. 43, No. 2, June 1994.

Failure Mechanism Models for Electromigration

D. Young and A. Christou


This tutorial illustrates situations where electro-migration (a wearout failure mechanism) in electronic devices can degrade performance.  Electro-migration and its relation to microstructure is discussed.  Temperature considerations are treated.  A practical model for electro-migration and two application examples are given.  Qualitative design procedures for avoiding solid-state electro-migration failure are briefly discussed.

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