Material Failure Mechanisms and Damage Models
A. Dasgupta and M. Pecht
Failures in engineering systems occur due to specific causes, whether
foreseen or not; many of those causes are related to specific procedures
by the user. Failures are typically attributed (correctly or not) to:
ignorance and/or indifference about user needs and desires, inattentive
management, poor selection of materials or combinations of materials, inadequate
design, inappropriate manufacturing and assembly processes, lack of adequate
technology, improper treatment by users, and other poor control of quality.
Failure is a complicated concept; four simple conceptual models for failure
are: Stress-strength, damage endurance, challenge-response, and
tolerance-requirement. The specific failure mechanisms depend on material
or structural defects, damage induced during manufacture and assembly,
and on conditions during storage and field use. Conditions that affect
the state of an item are broadly termed stress (loads), eg, mechanical
stress, and strain, electrical current and voltage, temperature, humidity,
chemical environment, and radiation. The effects of stresses are
influenced by geometry, constitutive, and damage properties of the
materials, manufacturing parameters, and the application environment.
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